Photographers Playground | Geology of the American Southwest

Dynamic Geology of the American Southwest

For those in search of the Earth’s most wondrous natural spectacles, there are few geological tapestries like the American Southwest anywhere else on the planet. From the enchanting crimson canyons of upstate Arizona to the towering mesas of Utah and the serene vistas of New Mexico – this region is brimming with the miraculous beauty of nature.

Eons of geological processes have sculpted this breathtaking corner of the world, and various subregions have their own unique stories to tell, too. In this blog post, we are embarking on a journey through the natural wonders of the American Southwest. We’ll find out how these majestic canyons and mesas formed and unlock the hidden secrets while exploring the dynamic features of these remarkable landscapes.

The Mountains Call

There is no question why they call it colorful Colorado as dappled light and dreamy clouds drift over the top of the San Juan Mountains outside Ridgway, Colorado. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

History of the American Southwest

The American Southwest largely owes its stunning landscapes to a complex interplay of geologic and tectonic processes that have unfolded over hundreds of millions of years. These natural processes have created some of the most unique and striking features on the planet. Perhaps the greatest factor shaping this region’s distinctive geology is the fact that much of it was once submerged beneath an ancient, shallow sea.

Millions of years ago – during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, to be precise – large portions of what we now know as the Southwest were covered by vast, inland seas. The Sonoran Desert, for instance, was once a part of this seabed. Over time, the accumulation of sediment and the remains of decomposing marine organisms formed thick layers of limestone and shale, which today comprise the rock formations of the arid, desert landscape.

As tectonic plates shifted and collided, the Southwest experienced several dramatic upheavals. The formation of the Rocky Mountains to the north played an important part in shaping the region for a number of reasons. The uplifting of these mountains caused the Colorado Plateau, which includes the Grand Canyon, to rise and tilt, exposing the sedimentary rock layers that had been accumulating for millions of years.

The Grand Canyon itself is another example of a beautiful natural feature that owes its existence to the passage of time. The Colorado River, carving through the plateau for around a cool six million years, has slowly exposed the intricate layers of rock that now line the canyon walls. This geologic time capsule displays countless layers of rock dating back nearly two billion years, providing scientists and enthusiasts a titillating opportunity to study Earth’s geologic history.

The extraordinary geologic diversity of the American Southwest can be attributed to their origins as ancient seabeds, massive shifts in tectonic forces, as well as the erosional prowess of wind and water. Nowhere else on earth offers such a concentrated display of geological marvels – from the vivid rock layers of Zion National Park to the surreal hoodoos of Bryce Canyon, and the iconic monoliths throughout Monument Valley.

At the end of the day, it’s the harmonic convergence of geological history and the relentless work of natural forces that have shaped these gorgeous landscapes, making the American Southwest an unparalleled showroom of our planet’s cataclysmic history.


A weathered sandstone cliffside becomes a bolt of lavender silk beneath the evening light at Factory Butte, Utah. The folds and furrows of the rippled face chart the path of desert rains as they traverse the striated chronicle of the rock. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

Nevada Landscape Photography

While the bright lights of Las Vegas immediately come to mind for many when you mention Nevada, the state is made up of much more than deserts, cacti and the city of sin. Home to the Great Basin and Mohave Deserts, Nevada’s landscape is also marked by ancient lakebeds and expansive salt flats. Nevada also boasts the iconic Sierra Nevada mountain range, with its jagged peaks and glacial-carved valleys.

The Silver State’s geologic treasures also include active fault lines, such as the Walker Lane, and hot springs, which is evidence that many of the geologic forces that shaped this region are still at work to this day.

The colorful sandstone formations of Valley of Fire State Park and the world-renowned geothermal wonders of the Black Rock Desert are also captivating destinations for geology, nature, and photography enthusiasts alike.

My two personal favorite photography locations in Nevada are Valley of Fire State Park and Red Rock Canyon National Conservation area. Other locations that are popular with photographers include the Black Rock Desert & High Rock Canyon. Great Basin National Park, located in East-Central Nevada, is a popular destination for astro (or night photography) due to dark skies. On the border of Nevada & California, Lake Tahoe is not only a popular tourist location, but a top choice for natures photographers as well.

The Crown

Cloud shadows flow across the face of the scarred peaks of Colorado’s Maroon Bells Wilderness. Glimpses of jade boulders on the lakebottom are seen through the veil of gold radiated by the autumnal aspens on the shore. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

Colorado Landscape Photography

Colorado’s hallmark – the Rocky Mountains – stretches from New Mexico to British Columbia, Canada, showcasing towering peaks, glacial valleys, and abundant mineral deposits. Colorado shares the Colorado Plateau with the rest of the Southwest, featuring iconic red rock formations as seen in Arizona and Utah.

Colorado’s high plains, deep canyons (like the Black Canyon of the Gunnison), and diverse ecosystems are what set this state apart from others in the region. Colorado’s alpine landscape and varied geologic formations add to the richness of the American Southwest’s geological wonders.

As a lover of both the mountains, and the crisp air and beautiful changing colors of autumn, Colorado is my favorite state in all of the American southwest. Colorado is simply packed with amazing landscape photography possibilities. I could spends weeks in the area between Telluride & Ouray, to Ridgway via Last Dollar Road alone during autumn. Crested Butte and Aspen, with the iconic Maroon Bells are also must see destinations for nature and landscape photography. If you haven't seen Colorado in the fall, you really need to move it to the top of your list.

Colorado Gold

The bleached trunks of a grove of quaking aspen stand like the columns of a Hellenic ruin near Aspen, Colorado. Wreaths of golden leaves crown the neat pillars and their colors are reflected in the meadows of grass below. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

Arizona Landscape Photography

The Sonoran Desert, the Grand Canyon, and the mesmerizing red rock formations of Sedona – Arizona has a lot to offer. The Sonoran Desert dominates southern Arizona, peppered with the iconic saguaro cactus which can be found nowhere else on earth.

The Grand Canyon also sees close to five million visitors per year and is one of the most photographed landmarks in the world. People from all over travel to experience the sheer vastness of nature’s creations firsthand, and for good reason. The landmarks, the cacti, the blistering heat, and incredible biodiversity – the American Southwest is truly something to behold.

Aside from the Grand Canyon, some of my personal favorite places to photograph are the incredible slot canyons of Page, Coal Mine Canyon and the otherworldly lunar landscapes of White Pocket. Even Horseshoe Bend, as overrun and photographed to death as it is, should be a quick stop on your list if you have never seen it. Some nature photographers like to trash talk heavily trafficked locations but the truth is that they are popular for a reason. Many of these photographers only talk down these locations AFTER they have already visited the area themselves. ;)


A plume of dust, stirred by the swirling winds of a sculpted slot canyon are caught in a lone beam of sun penetrating the maze. Flashed to blinding white, the dancing motes become an eerie inferno, yawning out of a portal to another world. Fine Art Limited Edition of 100

Utah Landscape Photography

This state is renowned for its intricate, multicolored sandstone formations, best epitomized by the dramatic spires and arches of Arches National Park and the incomparable Bryce Canyon.

Monument Valley’s iconic buttes and mesas gloriously exemplify the region’s rocky terrain. Indeed, Utah’s geological masterpieces are deeply intertwined with the broader Southwestern themes. The state’s natural treasures are a testament to the extraordinary forces that have helped shape this precious corner of the globe.

Utah is one of the most geologically diverse states in America and as a result hosts a wide variety of amazing landscapes for any nature photographer. My personal favorites include Zion National Park, Factory Butte, Canyonlands and Bryce Canyon. Other popular locations include Capital Reef National Park, the Utah Badlands, Arches National Park and located on the border with Arizona, the iconic Monument Valley, where I was fortunate enough to witness and photograph an extremely rare tornado back in 2015.

The Window
Transform your space with Aaron Reed's luxury fine art photography print, The Window, from his Panoramic Wall Art collection. Order yours today! Fine Art Limited Edition of 100

New Mexico Landscape Photography

New Mexico is a study in contrasts, featuring both high desert plateaus, expansive sand dunes in White Sands National Park, and the rugged peaks of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Its landscape bears evidence of volcanic activity, with the Valles Caldera and the Malpais lava fields offering incredible views.

The state’s rich history, influenced by its Native American, Spanish, and Wild West heritage, is etched into its geology, making New Mexico an enthralling destination for both natural and cultural exploration.

While New Mexico is the one state on this list I have not visited personally, other popular photography destinations include the Bisti Badlands & Shiprock. For those looking for less trafficked and unique photography opportunities, New Mexico may be just what you are looking for!

White Satin

A false snow of satin white sand is draped like a fur mantle before the nebulous blue of a faraway mountain range. The ordered lattice of waves and troughs which cover each dune impart the appearance of a giant bed of coral. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

Nature Photographers Playground

Because the region features flora and fauna that cannot be found anywhere else in the world, and because of the diverse landscapes and vibrancy of Southwest, many photographers simply cannot resist the siren’s call. With iconic natural wonders like the Grand Canyon, Antelope Canyon, Monument Valley, and Arches National Park, these landmarks offer instantly recognizable subjects for photographers seeking to capture the beauty of the natural world.

The region’s clear, high-altitude areas provide excellent lighting and atmospheric conditions for capturing landscapes and night skies. There are several dark sky sites throughout the Southwest that draw astrophotographers in addition to nature photographers.

From the deserts of Arizona and Nevada to the lush forests of the Colorado Plateau, the Southwest provides an amazing range of differing terrain, each with its own visual appeal and photographic opportunities. And for those who are seeking solitude and unspoiled landscapes, the Southwest has vast expanses of wilderness where photographers can connect with nature and share truly unique and awe-inspiring images.

Sweet Dreams

Golden light from the early morning sun illuminates a forest of beautiful aspen trees at the peak of autumn in Telluride, Colorado. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

The Vortex

The desert sun shines down through an iridescent portal in one of Antelope Canyon’s famous slot canyons. Over the eons, the solid rock has begun to take on the shape of the wild rivers which have carved their way through it. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.

By Any Means

A tattered ladder of torn timbers bears the cantilevered weight of an old mill outside Carbondale, Colorado. Beneath the clouded sky, canary bursts of fall aspens adorn the tranquil glades beneath the snow capped Rockies. Fine Art Limited Edition of 100.

Autumn Branches

Branches like arteries stretch in every direction providing the nutrients of life to the leaves of this Aspen tree in Ridgway, Colorado. Fine Art Limited Edition of 50.